Atuwa, Teeka, Tippani and Sammatha

The most supermandane Buddha Dhamma preached by Gautama Buddha using Maghadi verses were analyzed & described as Artha & Darma by some disciples of the Buddha, The Eighty Great Disciples[1], and were taken in to the texts in Hela language and called Hela Commentaries. Writing Atuwa, the commentary for the doctrine of the Buddha dates back to Gautama Buddha’s time and it helped the Sinhala people to understand Dhamma easily. Most of ancient Hela books highlight the fact that those days there had been many Atuwas in use, namely, Budu Kali Atuwa written in Rajagala, Hela Attha Kathaa, Maha Attha Kathaa, Seehala Attha Kathaa and Kurundi Attha Kathaa. These are the most original Attha Kathaas and they were used in the ancient times. The most intellectual great disciples of Buddha such as Agra Sravaka[2] Arahant Sariyuth Thero, Arahant Maha Kachchayana Thero and Arahant Maha Kotathitha Thero lived in the city of Rajagaha (Rajagala in Ampara) in this Helabima wrote these Attha Kathaas, they and Lord Buddha were contemporaries. The true and genuine Buddha Dhamma which would help the Sinhala people to direct them on the path of Nibbana was written, simply and completely, in Hela language in these Hela Commentaries.

Mahavamsa says that even after the Parinibbana of Gautama Buddha these Sinhala Commentaries, which were written and kept in the places such as Ruhuna & Rajagala in the east, Jethavanarama in the city of Savath, were taken and stored in Mahavihara monastery in Anuradhapura during the reign of King Dutugamunu. Arahant Mahinda Thero,in his first visit, from Rajagala in Ampara (the city of Rajagaha), introduced the Buddha Dhamma to Anuradhapura and in his second visit to Anuradhapura he had brought one Sinhala Commentary (Atuwa) called Budukeli Atuwa with him, Mahavamsa says further. This commentary had been written in Rajagala. In this manner, from time to time, a large number of books such as Hela Atuwa & other precious Hela texts written & stored in the Buddhist institutes and libraries located in Ruhuna, eastern region and other regions of the country were taken from them and stored in Mahavihara monastery in Anuradhapura. Atuwa books written in Hela language were stored in Mahavihara monastery in Anuradhapura and Buddhagosha Thero who came to Lanka in Buddha Varsha 984[3] translated some of them in to Pali language.

In this process the supermandane sacred Buddha Dhamma written in the Sinhala Attha Kathaa by the Noble Bhikkus was transformed in to the concepts of religions of gods. It was the process of writing them in a way which would then be embraced by the ordinary world, ordinary people. Hence, Hela Commentaries which were analyzed and written in Sinhala, which were understood by the people who knew Sinhala, were mixed up with the religious concepts based on the divine life, and specially, modified & wrote up in Pali Language so then it would go hand in hand with the famous Pathanjali[4] theological concepts prevailed those days in India. It is stated in the history that including Vishuddhimagga, Bhikku Buddhagosha had written 17 books, finally, he left the country after contriving to set all the Sinhala books on fire which were stored in the library of Mahavihara monastery in Anuradhapura and it says that their weight was similar to the weight of seven elephants.

But the commentaries translated and written by Buddhagosha Thero, including Vishuddhimagga, were secured in Abayagiri Vihara. After the destruction of all the Hela Atuwa books stored in the library in Mahavihara monastery, after the demolishing & leveling down the Mahavihara monastery to the grounds and cultivating grain Ulundu[5], what was left here in this Lakdiva[6] was the Pali Atuwas written by Bhikku Buddhagosha.  After that, in the period of Anuradhapura & in the period of Polonnaruwa as well, all the Pali and Sinhala commentators who wrote various Atuwas, Tippani & Sammathas for them, used and followed the advises from the books, for example Pali Vishuddhimagga, written by the Buddhagosha Thero which were based on the wrong translations with worldly meanings, but not the genuine and correct sacred Buddha Dhamma. Because of this, by the time of Polonnaruwa era, the pure and sacred Buddha Dhamma was totally changed, modified and Nibbana was just limited to a mere wish, religious concept practiced in India were spread out rapidly across Heladiva. The sacred Buddha Dhamma of which the main aim was directing people for the realization of Nibbana was totally extinct with the effect made by the suppression of various religious concepts. What left behind was something to be believed in faith and it was called Buddhism. Accordingly, along with the destruction of Hela books stored in Mahavihara monastery by the fire, all the things which were highly praised by the Indian religious concepts and theological religions such as various rituals & customs, offerings, poojas, sacrifices, numerous Shanthikarmas[7], ritualistic songs & Stothras[8], poojas for blessings were spread out among the people in Lanka. Mahayana Bhikkus lived in Abayagiri monastery became the winners of the battle.[9] Bhikkus lived in the Mahavihara monastery were fully extinct. The sacred Buddha Dhamma of which the main objective is directing people for Nibbana and Hela Atuwa which were written in simple Hela language came to an end and a religion called Buddhism which is influenced by the concepts of religions based on gods and Amisa Poojas[10]was left behind for Lankan people in Helabima. It became their heritage.  The ones who followed the supermandane sacred Buddha Dhamma for Nibbana stepped in to the wild. The Mahayana group who had connections with Abayagiri Vihara who believed in the concepts of gods were gathered around the royal palace. That day, a group of Bhikkus who experienced all the luxuries of extreme ends which are far advanced than the luxuries enjoyed by a king or a Count were originated in Anuradhapura, in Lanka. By the time of Polonnaruwa era this situation became further worse. It is very clear that the sacred Buddha Dhamma was fully suppressed by the worldly concepts of theologies gradually. The books and texts based on Buddhist literature such as Poojavaliya, Kawsilumina and Buthsarana were written in this period. As far as the history of Buddhist literature is concerned it was in its golden era that these books were written. In this period Buddhist literature, Buddhist culture and art & craft came to their peak. The absolute result of all these was giving the priority for the religious concepts and Nibbana became just a wish. The sacred Buddha Dhamma was suppressed, rituals, customs and sacrifices were given the priority. All the periods came after this were so worse and by the time of Kandyan period,[11]Buddha Dhamma came to its total end and was fully extinct.

Next Chapter…

[1] Asu Maha Srawaka – These are the most distinguished eighty disciples of the Buddha. Śrāvaka (Sanskrit) or Sāvaka (Pāli) or Shravaka means “hearer” or, more generally, “disciple”.

[2] Agra Sravakas – Sariyuth (Sariputra) and Moggallana were considered as the Agra-Sravakas or Chief Disciples of Buddha whereas the other disciples were called The Maha-Sravakas. Based on the capabilities they were appointed to these positions by the Buddha.

[3] Buddha Varsha – The yardstick which Buddhists use to calculate the span of years, began upon the death, or the Parinibbana of Buddha.

[4]Pathanjali is the compiler of the Yoga Sūtras, an important collection of aphorisms on Yoga practice (150 BCE or 2nd c. BCE). According to tradition, the same Patañjali was also the author of the Mahābhāṣya, a commentary on Kātyāyana’s vārttikas (short comments) on Pāṇini’s Aṣṭādhyāyī and of an unspecified work of medicine (āyurveda). (Read more in Appendix).

[5]Ulundu – Known as Udu in Sinhala language. The flour taken from Ulundu grain is a key base, commonly used for various foods in India. We can assume the reason for choosing this particular grain to grow on the grounds of Mahaviha monastery which was destroyed to ground due to the arrangement set up by the Indian Bhikku Buddhagosha.

[6]Lakdiva Lak is for Lanka, diva is for deepa or island. Lakdiva is the island called Lanka.

[7]This can be termed as a ritualistic practice, certainly based for the blessings of different deities, performed for a particular reason, specially for healings or for the wealth, prosperous status in crops, using many articles such as traditional drums, songs, costumes, food etc.

[8] Stotra or Stotram स्तोत्र is a Sanskrit word, for a hymn addressed to Divinity. It can be a prayer, a description, or a conversation.  (Read more in Appendix).

[9] Mahayana and Theravada – (Read more in Appendix).

[10] There are two different types of offerings. Material or hospitality or symbolic offerings (Pali: Amisa-Puja or Sakkara-Puja) and Practice offerings (Pali: Patipatti-Puja). (Read more in Appendix).

[11] Kingdom of Kandy (Sinhala: සිංහලේ රාජධානිය) was an important independent monarchy of the island of Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island. It was founded in late 15th century and endured until the early 19th century. (Read more in Appendix).

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Tripitaka and Pali Language written in Helabima

In prior to the arrival of the conceptual Indian king called Vijaya to Helabima in the ancient times, the people of Deva tribe[1] lived in this Helabima, the people of Yakkha tribe lived in Yakkha Hela, the people of Naaga tribe lived in Naga Hela and the people of Kumbanda tribe lived in Kumbanda Hela, all these were the people lived in this land with peace and harmony. All the people mentioned here, who are from different tribes are not extraordinary, miraculous demons or ghosts. They are not Vaddhas[2] either. Especially, the people who lived in Deva Hela in the ancient times were real human beings who possessed with the knowledge of science, knowledge of technologies, intelligences and advanced knowledge of irrigational properties. The Prince Siddhartha Gautama Bosath who later attended in to The Enlightenment in Janbudveepa too was the son of queen Mayadevi and King Suddhodana who was known as a regional king in Deva Hela. Those days Helabima in Deva Hela was popular as Kimbulwathpura. In the ancient times, a city situated on the southern region of river Mahaveli, now it is called Dimbulagala, was the reign of the royal family of the Sakyan Clan.

Also the great kings such as Wesamuni, Wiroodha, Viroopakkha and Datharaadtha found in the Aataanaataa Sutta & in the Tripitaka literature as Chaththaro Maharaja, also known as the Four Guardian Deities who are respected and worshipped by our people even today had reigned in Yakkha and Naaga Hela in this Helabima itself. And also the great kings found in Tripitaka texts, Mahavamsa & Deepavamsa such as King Kosol, King Bimbisara, King Ajaasaththa, King Suddhodana, King Amithodhana, King Dethodhana, King Supprabuddha, King Mahasena, Princes Abhaya Raaja, King Aalawaka, King Hemawatha, King Saathagiri, King Saman, kings of the Naaga tribe such as King Choolodara, King Mahodara, King Muchalinda, King Maniakkitha and all the names of the Counts found in Tripitaka such as Count Sudhatta, Visaka, Nanda Maatha, Chiththa Gruhapathi were our own great grand fathers who were born and passed away in this Heladiva. They are our own relations.

The names and the places where these people lived are taken from & mentioned in the historical Tripitaka texts written in Helabima and also in the historical chronicles such as Deepavamsa & Mahavamsa which were written in this Heladeepa. All the well developed, cultured cities & villages such as city of Rajagaha, city of Savath, city of Kosaba, city of Kimbulwath, the great city of Vishala, the city of Baranas which were found in the time that Gautama Buddha lived are mentioned only in the Tripitaka literature. They are the Tripitaka texts written in Helabima.

All the texts recorded as Tripitaka were initially written in this Helabima, at a place called “Alu Lena”.  The names of the persons, kings & the Counts or of the cities & villages mentioned in Tripitaka texts, Deepavamsa or Mahavamsa were not found in any text, book or paper written either in the same period or in a period closer to that in India – Maha Baratha – and it is certain that it will never ever be seen or heard in any form in the future as well. If any well known person of this nature had lived those days in that country, Indians had all the possibilities in taking those names in to their own texts written in India even before they were mentioned in the texts written in a foreign land. Even to this date, texts written in India in Buddha’s time or in the period closer to that time, such as Puraana texts,[3]Vedic texts[4] and Ramayana[5]are still available in India. Any name of a person or of a village mentioned in Tripitaka cannot be seen in any book, any text or any paper written in India. All these names of the people, the cities or the places stated in Tripitaka in the very ancient time like 2000 years ago, are the information related to the cities, villages and of the people lived in this Helabima. Even before these things, information, the Dhamma were recorded in Tripitaka, a very long period of four hundred years or more, our Sinhala Bhikkus were able to take them from one generation to the other based on an unbroken oral tradition.

If someone claims that Gautama Buddha preached his sacred Buddha Dhamma in India, it should be proved by providing evidence of a group of Bhikkus lived in India in the said period or a group who studied this information by heart and taken them from one generation another. But it was not even heard that a history of this nature was maintained in India and any Bhikku or any person at least knew a Dhamma of this nature. It has to be mentioned here specially that no any record can be found related to any Bhikku or any person who has experienced the fruitions in the supermundane path (Maga Pala or Marga) in the far off areas of river Kaveri, i.e. in North India, in prior to the period of Ashoka in Barath Desha. Even Ashoka the Great could see a Bhikku only after the Kalinga war in southern Indian regions of river Kaveri. But, of course, by the time of Ashoka, the great Bhikkus who learnt Dhamma in Helabima  and gained fruitions in the supermundane path could be seen in South India, on this side of the banks of river Kaveri.

The historical story of this Helabima where all the supermandane Buddhas were born and attended to The Enlightenment is based on the absolute truth, driven by their general education, knowledge or the understanding, any ordinary historian, scientist, archeologist or any ordinary member in the clergy are not in a position even to guess and think of its greatness. It is sublime and so profound. All the Buddhas lived in this world, all the Buddhas to come in the future, all the Arahants, not only all Pachceka Buddhas[6]but all the Chakravarti Kings[7] as well are born and live in this Heladeepa, the noblest land of the world. What is heard and discovered about the history of this Helabima by the world is so little. The great glory of the history of this Helabima that the world could not discover yet, what is lost in time, is marvelous and that cannot be limited to some words and to some papers in a text. It dates back to the period of Deepankara Buddha.

What is written in ‘Tripitaka texts’ is the real history of Helabima related to one particular period in the ancient times. Even to this date, the real and genuine recorded history which we can be claimed as something of our own is found in the collection of Tripitaka texts. It is mentioned here with much confidence that all the details found in more than seventeen thousand and sixteen Sutta Dhamma & five hundred fifty Jathaka Stories which were written on ola leaf books in this country in the very past as 2000 years ago are the recorded evidence which are hundred percent related to our own history in this Helabima . None of these books or letters was written in India or in Barath Desha. Hence, it is certain that no any country in the world is possessed with a heritage like of ours which is based on genuine, significant and confirmed facts. No any man on earth is capable enough to betray our history to some other country, suppress & throw away it considering that our history is simply as of a history of some other country. Our history was written by our great grand fathers in the past, scholars and Nobel ones who knew profound Dhamma well and had experienced the fruitions of the supermundane path, Maga Pala.

If you have any doubt over that truths which are disclosed again in this manner, which are declared with authentication, I would like to kindly invite you to answer some questions that I raise upon with regards to this matter, you can deeply think about them, analyze them thoroughly and without being biased you can find the answers, you yourself then can question the credibility of this statement. It is necessary for you to think as a Hela person. You should not be shameful and cheap enough to suppress our own history.

1. In what country that the Buddha Dhamma preached in Maghadi language by Gautama Buddha was recorded into Tripitaka Canon and Jathaka Stories in the ancient time like 2100 years ago? – It is this Helabima .

2. What was that country that Hela Letters, the alphabet, were used to write this Tripitaka Canon and Jathaka texts nearly 2100 years ago? – Those are the ancient Hela Letters which were used in Helabima.

3. What is that country which had a generation of Bhikkus, an Order, who had continuously taken down the Buddha Dhamma for a long period like 450 years which was preached in Maghadi language by means of lines – Pela Dhamma – and followed an unbroken oral tradition? It was done by the generation of Hela Bhikkus lived in Helabima.

4. From where did the Buddhist monks come and participate in the event of forming the writing of Buddha’s teachings which happened to be at Alu-Lena[8] in Helabima in 76 BC?[9] Do you know that all these Bhikkus participate in that Dhamma Sangayana[10] came there from different parts in Helabima?

5. The aim of sacred Buddha Dhamma is to help the people to realize Nibbana. In the present context Bhuddha Dhamma has turned in to ‘Buddhism’ which is a ritual & a belief. Out of these two, where will what is written in Tripitaka stand out? What is mentioned in Tripitaka is the sacred Patichchasamuppadha Dhamma, but not mere beliefs and rituals.

6. The Tripitaka says that there had been thousands of Arahants in the Aaramas & Viharas in Janbudveepa where Gautama Buddha was born. Why is it not stated in any historical book or a document that there had been one Arahant in any place in the northern region of the river kaveri in India? It was purely because there had been none of these Nobel ones who had experienced the fruitions in the supermundane path.

It was only by our own Bhikkus in Helabima , especially the Bhikkus lived in the Deva Hela, who formed the sacred Buddha Dhamma in to lines, the Dhamma what was originally preached to the world by Gautama Buddha in pure Maghadi language and taken them through an unbroken oral tradition from one generation to another, the teacher-pupil tradition, for a period of four hundred twenty five years, from 543 BC to 76 BC.  The Bhikkus who participated in that Dhamma Sangayana held in Alu-Lena came there from areas such as Tissamaharama, Sithulpawwa, Haburugala, Budugala, the city of Kusinara, Kudimbigala, Rajagala, Deegawapi and also the Aaranya Senasanas[11] in the eastern and Sabaragamu regions in Ruhuna[12]. Bhikkus came from Enderagala in Dambulla, Pidurangala, and Rangirigala and also from some other parts in the island. It is not mentioned in Mahavamsa or Deepavamsa, or in this case in any text or book, that any one from India, Baratha Desha had participated in this. That is only because of the fact that any one in India did not have any knowledge, any understanding over Gautama Buddha and the Tripitaka which contained the teachings of Buddha.  It has to be mentioned preciously here that Prince Mihindu had come to the city of Rajagaha (Ampara) in Deva Hela, had learnt Sinhala language, Maghadi language & Buddha Dhamma from a Buddhist academy, entered in to the Order and attended in to the fruitions in the supermundane path.

From the ancient times to this date, the sacred Buddha Dhamma preached by Buddha for forty five years in Deva Hela and in certain places in Naaga Hela as well, were arranged in forms of lines, recited and taken them down as an unbroken inherited oral custom in this Helabima.

The historical place known as Rajagala in Ampara today was the capital city of the kingdom of Magadha. In the past it can be seen that Maghadi language and ancient Hela language had been used in the kingdom of Magadha. In the universities and in academies, the intellectuals used the pure Maghadi language to learn art and science and the spoken language of the ordinary citizens was Hela language. Even to this date what is similar to Hela language is Maghadi language. In this era the base and the route language for all the languages used in India was Sanskrit language. The Tamil language used in the South India too was originated from a different source and was different to these Sanskrit languages.

Even after the Parinibbana of Gautama Buddha, the members of the most learnt Bhikkus who lived in our Helabima, especially in the Deva Hela, silently worked towards the protection of sacred Buddha Dhamma. They considered Dhamma same as their own life, studied it by heart and took it from one generation to another, though they got no any patronage from the rulers.

Though Tripitaka Dhamma was written on texts at a place called Alu-Lena in Deva Hela in 76 BC, it is difficult to think that King Walagambha had given his support for the same. This writing down of Tripitaka had been initiated by the members of this same Hela Bhikkus who had been taken down these sacred teachings of Buddha from generation to generation. In the ancient time i.e. 280 years before the reign of King Ashoka, if this sacred Buddha Dhamma was well established in India, all these sublime concepts of Dhamma could have been thoroughly inculcated in to thinking of the people in Indian. Other than the knowledge in the Vedic religious concepts, concepts of Jainism, religions based on the concepts of gods such as Shiva, the Indian people knew nothing, understood nothing about the sacred Buddha Dhamma.

During his reign, Ashoka the Great, attempted to create a particular religion in India by means of adding the code of Pancha Seela and certain virtual teachings & customs found in Buddha Dharma in to the religious concept prevailed in India such as Hinduism, Shiva, Vedic and Jainism and to recreate a righteous society in which all can live in peace and harmony. He wanted to create a kingdom of righteousness. This is how Buddhism was originated in India. Buddha Dhamma and the religion are two different things.

Buddha Dhamma is not a belief. It does not go hand in hand with the politics either. The Noble Silence is the key characteristic in Buddha Dhamma. Because of this, Buddha Dhamma will be protected, Dhamma will be safe guarded only by a group of Buddha disciples who are interested in the association of the forests, trees and roots, lonely & abandoned places and practice the principles of Dhamma and attempting the extinction of Keles[13].During the reign of Ashoka and also during the periods of most powerful empires in India such as empire of Kushan and empire of Guptha, Buddhism was well spread out in India.

But the Buddha Dhamma was not spread out in a manner then it would help the people to attend in to Nibbana. It should be mentioned that even in the period of the Guptha Dynasty in India, the supermandane Buddha Dhamma was in use in Helabima in Lanka in regions such as  Rajagala, Ampara, Sithulpawwa, Deegawapiya, Maligawila and also the regions such as Rathnapura and Kegalle in the Sabaragamuwa province. The best example for the existence of this particular Buddha Dhamma is the story of Arahant Maliyadeva in the Kegalle region.

Something should be written here about the Pali language and the term called Pali. Buddha Dhamma originally preached in Maghadi language by Gautama Buddha & Buddha’s disciples was written in Sinhala letters in Heladeepa and arranged the Dhamma in the form of lines for the comfort and the need of maintaining an oral system. As it was arranged in this form of lines, as it was easy to arrange these lines and study them by heart, this Buddha Dhamma which was originally preached in Maghadi language, later, was popular by the names such as Pela[14] or Pela Dhamma. The basis for the Pela Dhamma was ancient grammar and language methodologies in Sinhala language. Those are not the modified language methodologies in Hela language what is used by us now, but they are the grammars & the language methodologies of the ancient Hela language which were used in this Heladiva even prior to the period of Arahant Mahinada. Later, this same Maghadi language was used as Pali language in Anuradhapura in the period of Anuradhapura and also as a writing language for writing different books in the period of Polonnaruwa. In prior to the period of writing of Tripitaka there wasn’t a language called Pali in the world. But later, things related to Buddhism and certain historical things related to history of Heladiva were written using the language called Pali (Maghadi). The writing of this language called Pali was started in Lanka. It was developed and used in writing texts and letters in Lanka. Later, in between the third & the eighth centuries, Indian scholars too came to the city of Rajagaha (today its Rajagala in Ampara) learnt Pali language & Hela language and many other things in Buddha Dhamma. Later, it started to translate many things related to this Pela Dhamma in to Indian languages such as Sanskrit.

Because of this, by the time of 5th century scholars in Pali language could be seen in areas such as Ajantha, Wellora, Nagarjunkonda, Mathura and Gandhara in India. Buddhism was taught in Pali language in the universities and in academies. The Chinese travelers such as Hung Sang and Fa-Hien[15] claim that when the time they came to India and Lanka, there had been Pali scholars in Lanka as well as India. According to this, Pali language had never ever been an applied language used by the comma man, but it was a language created in Lanka purely to use in the writing of Buddha Dhamma. The verses used in Pali are the verses of Maghadi. In Lanka, Sinhala letters were used in writing Pali words and in other countries respective letters of those countries were used for the same. Later, even English letters were used to write the Pali language. In all these cases what had happened is nothing but writing the Maghadi, Maghadi verses which were originated in Helabima .

The pure Maghadi language is the common, base language for all other languages. Even Hela language was originated from the pure Maghadi language. All the Buddhas preach their supermandane Dhamma only in pure Maghadi language. It is because Maghadi language is not an applied language which is subjected to change the meanings and interpretations from time to time, is not subjected to the transformation and evolvement. Maghadi words and verses used earlier are still valid. All the applied languages are subjected to evolve, transform and change over the usage over the time. The Sinhala language, what is known to us today, used in the most recent past like 1900-1950 is not using in the country any more. Today it had faced many changers. But, Maghadi is a language which will not be changed in this manner. Gautama Buddha preached his Dhamma by using the same Maghadi verses which were used by the Kashapa Buddha 7000 years ago. What we read today is also the same Maghadi verses. They will not be changed in use. On the other hand four-fold interpretations based on Artha, Dharma, Nirukthi and Patibhana can be given only for pure Maghadi verses, the sacred verses preached by Buddha. Other than the pure Maghadi verses, no any other words in any applied language are capable enough to provide meanings and Dhammas of this nature along with the diversity in Dharma, the diversity in Nirukthi or the diversity in Patisanbhida. Hence, Maghadi language can be considered as very sacred language which is different to all other languages.

If someone wishes to understand the Buddha Dhamma preached in Maghadi verses by the Buddhas in a way to realize Nibbana, it is necessary to understand its diversity by Artha, Darma, Nirukthi and Patisambhida as well. Today interpretations to Maghadi verses are purely given based on Padaparama[16] status and that will not help to analyze the supermandane Dhamma and to attend in to Nibbana. For more than thousand years, these Maghadi verses were taken simply as Pali language, interpreted and used them purely on Padaparama status. And also it had failed to analyze the Maghadi verses based on the diversity of Artha, Darma,Nirukthi & Patisambhida and presented this knowledge in a way which would help to attend to Nibbana. In understanding Nibbana, it is a must to be realized Maghadi verses in the broader spectrum of Artha, Darma, Nirukthi and Patisanbhida, nothing else matters with this regards. It is only to someone who had gained the ultimate knowledge of Dhamma, who had experienced the fruitions in the supermundane path, would realize that Maghadi language is amazing, a very peculiar expressionary objective medium as it analysis the Dhamma based on Artha, Darma, Nirukthi and Patisanbhida.  It is not possible for an ordinary person to understand the meanings of this Dhamma.

Next Chapter ….

[1]Tribe – This word is used in connection to the tribes or ancient tribal communities lived in this Helabima. It should not be used in the same way that it is used on premature, uncultured communities, the aborigine communities found in the world who have restricted their lives to the wild.

[2] Veddas or Veddahs (Sinhala වැද්දා)are an indigenous people of Sri Lanka, an island in the Indian Ocean. They, amongst other self-identified native communities such as Coast Veddas and Anuradhapura Veddas, are accorded indigenous status. From as early as 18,000 BCE, a genetic continuum is shown with present-day Veddas. (Source – Wikipedia).

[3] Puraana texts are the mythological texts.

[4] The Vedas (Sanskritवेदाःvéda, “knowledge”) are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. (Read more in Appendix).

[5] The Ramayana (Sanskrit: रामायण) is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu Canon (smṛti), considered to be itihāsa. (Read more in Appendix).

[6] A Pratyekabuddha (Sanskrit: प्रत्येकबुद्ध) or Paccekabuddha (Pāli: पच्चेकबुद्ध), literally “a lone Buddha”, “a Buddha on their own” or “a private Buddha”, is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism. (Read more in Appendix).

[7]Emperor of emperors.

[8] Alu-Lena – Lena is the cave or the crypt.

[9] Some scholars in the island hold the view that the writing of the Tripitaka, Theravāda Pāli Canon, was performed at this cave temple and not at the cave temple called Aluvihare in Matale area. (Read more in Appendix).

[10]The Dhamma Council.

[11] Aaranya Senasanas  – Monasteries situated in the jungle which are surrounded with utmost serene beauty in the wild which would help for the monks to live blissfully and develop their spiritual practices.

[12] In the past the island was divided into 3 provinces. Officials titled “Eaepa, Maapa & Senevirath” (all king’s closest relations) ruled over “Ruhunu (southern Kingdom), Maya (western part) & Pihiti (Rest of the Island).

[13]Impurities, unwholesome acts.

[14]Pela[14] or Pela Dhamma – The lines of Dhamma or Dhamma written as lines.

[15]Fa-Hien or  Faxian  (337- c. 424 CE) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot all the way from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in what are now Xinjiang, China, Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka and between 399 and 412 to acquire Buddhist scriptures. (Read more in Appendix).

[16]Padaparama person – ‘one for whom the words are the utmost attainment’. Whoever, though having learned much, speaking much, knowing many things by heart, and discoursing much, has not penetrated the truth.

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This is the second volume of the book අප උපන් මේ හෙළබිමබුදුන් උපන් ජන්බුද්වීපයයි what I published 16 months ago.

It is a must to be fulfilled by all of us, as the people who are born in this Helabima and live in this Helabima, to read, analyze and understand the absolute truth highlighted in this book. Every human being is having the mental freedom of speaking the truth, writing about the truth and recording them for the future use.

After reading most of the things mentioned in this book, you will experience a total new, different understanding in Dhamma which is not going hand in hand with the opinions what you knew all this times and what you had learnt following the conventional thinking, systems and methodologies. Buddha Dhamma stands for “Penetrating in to Paramartha Dhamma through the traditions”. What you read in books and learnt from someone is the tradition, the conventional thinking. They are nothing but guessings that you have experienced based on what you heard, saw and learnt. You should penetrate in to what you learnt on traditions and based on them you should see the absolute truth. Seeing the absolute truth is limited purely to you yourself. Seeing the absolute truth for you, cannot be done by someone else. After seeing the absolute truth through Prathiweda Gaana, you would realize that the entire knowledge that you gathered for all this times either through the reading of books or through the universities is totally based only on wisdom of guess.

It is only for a short period that the absolute truth can be suppressed by the imposing of rules & regulations Teekaa & Tippani. The sole purpose of writing this book is to make it easy to understand the absolute truth by the human beings & deities who has fulfilled the required merits for the real and right opportunity.

A group of people who have fulfilled the required merits to realize the bliss of Nibbana within the Order of Gautama Buddha are born now in this land of Buddha, Janbudveepa. May all realize that there isn’t any personal expectation in this exercise, all these discloses are done aiming to help them to realize Dhamma and are purely based on the thinking of being a refuge to them.

I believe that most of the information in this book would help the ordinary world, the Pada Parama  persons to take at least some knowledge about the Noble Path, to keep them away from miraculous & extraordinary concepts of gods and to realize the strength of the human mind, the consciousness. If you too are a blessed person, a person walks on the path of sacred Buddha Dhamma, it is up to you to realize that this absolute truth is purely for you. After publishing 26 books titled “නිවන් අවබෝධ කරගන්නට උපකාර වන පරම පවිත්‍ර සිරි සද්ධර්මය – The most supermandane sacred Buddha Dhamma which will help to realize the Nibbana”, the reason for disclosing the real truth of the birth place of Buddha and the Buddha Shakthi is to help out to fulfill a particular limitation in Maha Parinibbana Sutta.  If this task was not done by me to the society, the human beings & deities would have lost the great opportunity that they had in hand to gain the Samma Ditti and Parathogoshaka Prathya. Hence, this can be considered as an act of disclosing the absolute truth purely based on Dhamma Niyaama. May the information in this book help the blessed ones who follow the code of Dhamma to realize the bliss of Nibbana!

Meewanapalane Siri Dhammalankara Thero
2nd October 2010
Parama Nibbana Dharmayathanaya and Meditation Centre

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අර්ථාන්විත නිගමනය

එදා ගෞතම බුදුපියාණන් ජීවමානව වැඩසිටි සමයේ, එනම් මෙයට වසර 2600 කට පමණ පෙර යුගයේදී, මෙම හෙළදීපය පැහැදිලිව ම පාලන අධිකාරිය අනුව කොටස් දෙකකට බෙදී තිබිණි.

1. ආලකමන්දාව (ලංකාපුර) අග නගරය කොටගෙන යක්ෂ, නාග, කුම්භාණ්ඩ, ගාන්ධර්ව ගෝත්‍රිකයන් විසූ යක්ෂ හෙළදීපය හා
2. ආර්යයන් ජීවත් වූ සොළොස් මහජනපද පිහිටා තිබූ දේව හෙළය නමින් ප්‍රසිද්ධ වූ ජන්බුද්වීපය.

සිදුහත් ගෞතම බෝසතාණන් උපත ලබුවේත්, ගෞතම බෝසතාණන් වහන්සේ උතුම් සම්බෝධියට පත් වූයේත්, පළමු ධර්ම දේශණාව පැවැත්වූ දා පටන් වසර හතලිස් පහක් ම ලෝකයාට දහම් බෙරය හඬ නැංවූයේත්, අවසානයේ පිරින්වන් පා වදාළේත මෙම හෙළදිව තුලදීමය. ඔබත් මමත් උපදින මියයන මේ හෙළදිව තුලදීම මේ සියලු දේ සිදු විය.

මේ කල්පය තුල පහළ වූ බුදුවරුන් සිව් නමක් ම මෙම ජන්බුද්දීපය තුලම පහළ වූ බව ත්‍රිපිටකයේ සඳහන් ය. ගෞතම බුදුන් උපත ලැබූ යුගයේදී ජන්බුද්වීපයට “හෙළදිව” යනුවෙන් භාවිතා කල අතර කකුසඳ බුදුන් උපත ලැබූ යුගයේදී එය “මණ්ඩදීපය” විය. දීපංකර බුදුන්ගේ පටන්ම මේ මිහිතලය මත උපත ලැබූ සියලුම බුදු පියාණන් වනන්සේලාට නිජබිම වූයේ මේ ජන්බුද්ද්වීපය ම යි. අප අද ශ්‍රී ලංකාව යැයි හඳුන්වන මේ හෙළ දිවයින තුල මිස වෙනත් කිසිම දිවයිනක මේ මිහිතලය මත නම් මිනිසෙකුට බුද්ධත්වය නැමැති ඒ උතුම් තත්වයට පත් වන්නට නොහැකිය. ඊට හෙතුව මිහිතලයේ ක්‍රියාත්මක වන විශ්ව ශක්තිය කේන්ද්‍රගත වූ මධ්‍ය මංඩලය පිහිටියේ ශ්‍රී ලංකාව කේන්ද්‍ර ගත කොට ගෙන වීමයි. බුද්ධත්වයට පත්වන සියලු බුදුවරයින් වහසෙලාට නියත වශයෙන් ම මෙම විශ්ව ශක්තිය ලබාගත හැකි වන්නේ ද ශ්‍රී ලංකාව නම් මේ ජන්බුද්වීපයේ හරිමැද පිහිටි මධ්‍ය මණ්ඩලයක දී ම පමණි. මේ හෙළදිව තුල අද උපත ලබා සිටින, මතුවට තවත් වසර හත් සියයක් පමණ කාලපරාසයක් තුල උපත ලබන පිංවත් මිනිසුන් කොටසකට ඒ බුද්ධ ශක්තියේ බලයෙන් නිසි ඵල ලබා සංසාර දුකින් සදා කාලයට ම මිදී නිදහස්වීමේ, නිවන් අවබෝධකර ගැනීමේ අවස්ථාව ද දැන් මේ සත්‍යය ධර්මය මතුකර පෙන්වීමත් සමගම උදාවන බව නියතයි. ඔබද මෙවන් වාසනාවන්ත කෙනෙකු බව සිතා “පරම පවිත්‍ර බුද්ධ ධර්මය” කියවා අසා දේන් ධර්ම මාරගයම අනුගමනය කර බුද්ධ ශක්තියට අනුගත වී නිවන් අත්විඳ ගන්න.

දෙවන කොටසට …

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එදා හෙළදිව පැවති සෙල්ලිපි තාක්ෂණය හා වාරි සංස්කෘතිය

අනුරාධපුර යුගයට වසර 300 කට පමණ පෙර එදා ගෞතම බුදුන් ජීවත් වූ යුගයේදීමේ හෙලදිව, දේව හෙලයේ පැවති සෙල්ලිපි ගල්ලිපි, ගල්කටාරම් කෙටීමේ ක්‍රම වේදය හා කළු ගල් පදම් කර සකස් කර ගැනීමේ ක්‍රම වේදය ලෝකයේ වෙනත් කිසිම රටක කිසිම යුගයක දී දැක ගන්නට නැති දෙයකි.අනුරාධපුර යුගයට පෙර යුග වලදී හෙළ දිවයින පුරාම ලියා තිබූ සෙල්ලිපි වලින් අද වන විට සොයා මතු කරගත් සෙල්ලිපි ප්‍රමාණය සිය දහස් ගණනින් නොව දස දහස් ගනණකට වඩා වැඩිය. තවත් කැලෑ වලට යට වී තවමත් වන ගහණයෙන් වැසී ඇති සොයා ගත යුතු සෙල්ලිපි කටාරම් හා ඒ ආශ්‍රිත දේ සොයා ගත් ප්‍රමාණය මෙන් කීප ගුණයකි.

අසෝක රජතුමා  ඉන්දියාවේ (සෙල්ලිපි) 32 ක් ලියා තබන තුරු ඉන්දියාවේ වෙනත් කිසිදු ප්‍රදේශයකින් කිසිම සෙල්ලිපියක් සොයාගෙන නැත. (මොහෙන්දජාරෝ හරප්පා යුගයේ සොයාගත් දේ හැර) එදා අශෝක රජු  ඉන්දියාවේ ලියා තැබූ මෙම සෙල්ලිපි 32 ම ලියා ඇත්තේ ලංකාවේ ගල් වඩුවන් හෝ ඔවුන්ගේ උපදේශ ඇතිවම බව ඉතාමත් ම පැහැදිලිය. සාංචි,වෙල්ලෝරා,අජන්තා ආදී ස්ථාන වල දකින්නට ඇති ගල් වලින් කළ බොහෝ දේ 4 වැනි හා 5 වැනි සහ 7 වැනි සියවස් වල දී නිර්මාණය කරන ලද දේවල් බව අද සොයාගෙන ඇත. ඉන්දියාවේ බුද්ධ යුගය වන විට ගලක ලියූ වෙනත් කිසිම දෙයක් සොයාගත නිහැකිය නමුත් ලංකාවේදී එය ඉතාමත් ම බහුලය. අශෝක සෙල්ලිපි හැරුණු විට ගල් කටාරම් ගල් ගුහා වල මේ යුගයේදී කෙටූ අකුරු ඉන්දියාවේ දකින්නට නැත. නමුත් ලංකාවේ හැම ගමකම වාගේ ගල්ගුහා වල, ගල් ලෙන් වල ගල් කටාරම් කොටා ඒවා බුද්ධ ප්‍රමුඛ මහා සංඝයා වෙත පූජා කළ බවට සාක්ෂි අනන්තය. ගෝතමෝශමන යනුවෙන් ලියා ගෞතම බුදුන් වහන්සේට ම ගල්ලෙන් 30 කට වඩා පූජා කර ඇති බව “ගෝතම සමන” යන කෙටූ සෙල්ලිපි 30 කටත් වඩා අද වන විට සොයාගෙන ඇති නිසාම ප්‍රකාශ කළ හැකිය. මේ සියලු ගල්ලිපි ලියා ඇත්තේ අනුරාධපුර යුගයට පෙර බුද්ධ යුගයේදීය. එදා දේව හෙළයේ සෑම තැනකම මුලතිවු  සිට තිස්සමහාරාමය දක්වා ම ලියා තැබූ විශාල සෙල්ලිපි ප්‍රමාණය ගැන පමණක් සලකා බලන කෙනෙකුට කෙනෙකුට හෙළදිව එදා පැවති තත්වයත් අනිකුත් තොරතුරුත් සංසංදනය කර මේ බුද්ධ රාජ්‍යය එදා හෙළදිව පැවති බව මොනවට තේරුම් ගත හැකිය. එය තේරුම් ගැනීමට යමෙකු මැළි වෙතොත් ඔහු බුද්ධ වචනයෙන් ම නියත මිත්‍යාදෘෂ්ටිකයෙකි.

එදා දේව හෙළයේ රට පාලනය කළ හැම ප්‍රාදේශීය පාලකයාම ඒඒ ප්‍රදේශ වල පිහිටි ගල්ලෙන් වල කටාරම් කොටා තමන්ගේ නමද සඳහන් කර බුද්ධ ප්‍රමුඛ මහා සංඝයා වෙත පූජා කළේය. අනුරපුර යුගයටත් වඩා කටාරම් කෙටූ ගල්ලෙන් ඇත්තේ රුහුණේ හා නැ‍ඟෙනහිර ප්‍රදේශ වල බවත් ඒ හැම ගල් කටාරමක් ම බුද්ධ යුගයට අයත් වන බවත් පෙන්වා දිය යුතුම කරුණකි. මේ අනුව ගෞතම බුදු පියාණන් එදා ජීවත් වූයේත් ධර්මය දේශනා කලේත් මේ හෙළදිව ම දේව හෙළයට එදා අයිති වූ ප්‍රදේශ වලය.මෙසේ බුද්ධ ධර්මය දේශනා කළේ ඉන්දියාවේදී යැයි කියන සිතන කිසිවෙකුට ඒ සඳහා ඉදිරිපත් කළ හැකි මෙවැනි ස්ථිර සාර සාක්ෂි කිසිවක් පෙන්වා දීමට හැකියාවක් නැත. මේ කරුණු විමසිල්ලෙන් කියවා බලා මීට අදාල අනෙකුත් පොත පතද කරුණු ද සලකා බලා මේ සඳහන් කරන ලද ස්ථානයන්ට ගොස් ඒවා ද පරීක්ෂා කර බලා සත්‍ය කුමක්ද තේරුම් ගැනීම ඔබ සැමගේ වගකීමයි. ජාතියේ පිනෙන් පහළ වූ දේ දැක බලා ගැනීමයි. ජන්බුද්වීපයේ උපත ලැබූවකු ලෙස ලබන නියත උරුමය වන්නේ බුද්ධ ධර්මයයි. පරම පවිත්‍ර බුද්ධ ධර්මය එදා මෙන්ම අදටත් ක්‍රියාත්මක වන්නේ මේ ධර්මද්වීපයේම පමණි. මේ නිසා හෙළ උරුමය යනු නිවන් දකින්නට උපකාර කර ගත හැකි බුද්ධ ධර්මයයි.

වාරි සංස්කෘතිය

එදා බුද්ධ යුගයේ හෙළදිව පැවති වාරි සංස්කෘතිය වැව් ආශ්‍රිත වූ ජීවන රටාව, ත්‍රිපිටකයේ බොහෝ සූත්‍ර ධර්ම වලදී ද, විග්‍රහ කර පෙන්වා දී ඇත. නගුලෙන් සී සා, කෙත්වතු වපුරා ජල පාලනය කළේ හෙළදිව එදා ජීවත් වූ මිනිසුන්ය. වැව් පිළිබඳව නිතර නිතර ත්‍රිපිටකයේ බොහෝ තැන් වල ගෞතම බුදු පියාණන්ම ඒවා උපමා ලෙසින් දක්වා ඇත. නමුත් ඉන්දියාවේ කිසිම තැනක මේ යුගය වන විට වැව් හෝ වාරි සංස්කෘතියක් හෝ නොතිබිණි. අනුරාධපුර යුගයටත් පොළොන්නරු යුගයටත් පෙර හෙළදිව බුද්ධ යුගයේ වාරි සංස්කෘතියක් පැවති බවත් එය නැගෙනහිර හා රුහුණේ ගම් නියම්ගම් සියල්ලන්ගෙන් ම දැක ගත හැකි බවත් පෙනේ. අනුරපුර යුගයේදී හා පොළොන්නරු යුගයේදී වැඩි දියුණු කර ගත්තේ පිටරටින් ගෙනා වාරි සංස්කෘතියක් නොව අපට ම ආවේණික වූ අපේ ම වාරි ක්‍රමයකි. එය බුද්ධ යුගය වන විටත් මේ හෙළදිව ඉතාමත් ම දියුණු තත්වයක පැවතිණි. ඒ බව මාදුරුඔය ජලාශය ඉදිකල ඉංජිනේරුවන්ට හමු වූ අති පැරණි සොරොව්වෙන්ද පැහැදිලිය. ඒ සොරොව්ව එදා සුද්ධෝදන මහ රජුගේ කාලයේදී කිඹුල්වත් පුර ඉදි කල එකකි. මාදුරුඔය පැරණි ජලාශය අනුරාධපුර යුගයට වඩා වසර 500 කටත් පෙර ඉදිකල එකක් බව තහවුරු වී ඇත.

ඊළඟ පරිච්ඡේදයට …

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